Empower yourself and find your risk of breast cancer.

Use your smartphone or our website to calculate your personalized risk of breast cancer and find out if you may qualify for earlier breast cancer screening.

In numbers.

This campaign is designed to help women and men understand their personal risk of breast cancer and screening recommendations.

[] Data statistic as of January 2022, courtesy of www.cancer.org.

Your recommendation.

In 2018, the American College of Radiology issued new recommendations that all women be evaluated for breast cancer risk by age 30, so that those at higher risk can be identified and begin screening before age 40 [].

Similarly, the American College of Breast Surgeons advises all women over age 25 to undergo risk assessment. There are a variety of risk assessment models available [, , ].

The risk assessment model used in this tool is based on the modified GAIL model for absolute risk of breast cancer. Calculators such as this one can overestimate or underestimate your risk. Use the links below to compare your result with similar tools.

Tyrer-Cuzick Risk Assessment Calculator

NIH Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

The American College of Radiology recommends that women of average risk start getting annual mammograms at age 40 [4].

By not getting annual mammograms, starting at age 40, you increase your changes of dying from breast cancer and the likelihood that you will experience more extensive treatment for any cancers found. 

Annual mammography screening starting at age 40 provides the greatest breast cancer mortality reduction by enabling diagnosis at smaller sizes and earlier stages, better surgical options, and more effective chemotherapy. Delaying screening until age 45 or 50 results in unnecessary loss of life to breast cancer, adversely affecting minority women in particular.

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Higher-risk women should start mammographic screening earlier and may benefit from supplemental screening modalities. For women with genetics-based increased risk (and their untested first-degree relatives), with a calculated lifetime risk of 20% or more or a history of chest or mantle radiation therapy at a young age, supplemental screening with contrast-enhanced breast MRI is recommended. [1]

Breast MRI is also recommended for women with personal histories of breast cancer and dense tissue, or those diagnosed by age 50. Others with histories of breast cancer and those with atypia at biopsy should consider additional surveillance with MRI, especially if other risk factors are present. Ultrasound can be considered for those who qualify for but cannot undergo MRI.

All women, especially black women and those of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, should be evaluated for breast cancer risk no later than age 30, so that those at higher risk can be identified and can benefit from supplemental screening.

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The American College of Radiology (ACR) has published breast cancer screening recommendations for transgender and gender nonconforming individuals. Data is limited about breast cancer risk in the LGBTQ+ community and recommendations are guided by sex assigned at birth, use and duration of hormone treatment, and surgical history.

Annual screening at age 40 is usually recommended for transfeminine (male-to-female) patients who have used hormones for ≥5 years, as well as for transmasculine (female-to-male) patients who have not had mastectomy [4].

In transfeminine individuals at higher-than-average risk25 to 30 years of age or older, and with 5 or more years of hormone use, breast cancer screening is usually appropriate

In average-risk transmasculine (female-to-male) individuals who are 40 years of age or older with breast reduction or no chest surgery, a screening mammogram is appropriate.

In intermediate-risk transmasculine individuals 30 years of age or older with breast reduction or no chest surgery, screening mammogram is appropriate, and breast ultrasound or breast MRI with and without intravenous contrast may be appropriate.

Individuals who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer are less likely to present for cancer screening than non–lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer persons [5]. Facilities must work to create a respectful environment that welcomes all people [6].

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The lifetime risk of breast cancer for a man is approximately 1:833, as compared with 1:8 for a woman. Breast cancer is about 100 times less common for men than women. The American Cancer Society estimates about 2,710 new cases of male breast cancer will be diagnosed in the United States in 2022. There are multiple risk factors for development and we want you to be aware of the factors that may increase your risk of male breast cancer.

Breast cancer risk is doubled for men who have a first-degree relative with breast cancer. In men with breast cancer, about 1 out of 5 have a close relative, male or female, with the disease. The highest incidence and death rates of male breast cancer are found in non-Hispanic Black men and men over 80 years old.

Due to low prevalence and limited data to support male breast cancer screening, there are currently no recommendations for image-based screening in asymptomatic men and few recommendations for men at high risk for breast cancer such as those who have high risk genetic mutations [8].

The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (2.2022) recommends men who have a BRCA pathogenic variant or likely pathogenic variant undergo the following screening:

  • Begin breast self-exam training and education starting at age 35 years old.
  • Clinical breast exam, every 12 months, starting at age 35 years old.
  • Consider annual mammogram screening in men with gynecomastia starting at age 50 or 10 years before the earliest known male breast cancer in the family (whichever comes first) [9].

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We have provided a list of references for the materials discussed in this educational module.

  1. Breast Cancer Screening in Women at Higher-Than-Average Risk: Recommendations From the ACR
    Monticciolo, Debra L. et al. Journal of the American College of Radiology, Volume 15, Issue 3, 408 – 414 https://www.jacr.org/article/S1546-1440(17)31524-7/fulltext
  2. Lee CS, Sickles EA, Moy L. Risk Stratification for Screening Mammography: Benefits and Harms. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2019 Feb;212(2):250-258. doi: 10.2214/AJR.18.20345. Epub 2018 Dec 17. PMID: 30557052. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30557052/
  3. Boughey JC, Hartmann LC, Anderson SS, Degnim AC, Vierkant RA, Reynolds CA, Frost MH, Pankratz VS. Evaluation of the Tyrer-Cuzick (International Breast Cancer Intervention Study) model for breast cancer risk prediction in women with atypical hyperplasia. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Aug 1;28(22):3591-6. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2010.28.0784. Epub 2010 Jul 6. PMID: 20606088; PMCID: PMC2917314. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20606088/
  4. Breast Cancer Screening Recommendations Inclusive of All Women at Average Risk: Update from the ACR and Society of Breast Imaging. Monticciolo, Debra L. et al. Journal of the American College of Radiology, Volume 18, Issue 9, 1280 – 1288.  https://www.jacr.org/article/S1546-1440(21)00383-5/fulltext
  5. Haviland KS, Swette S, Kelechi T, Mueller M. Barriers and Facilitators to Cancer Screening Among LGBTQ Individuals With Cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2020 Jan 1;47(1):44-55. doi: 10.1188/20.ONF.44-55. PMID: 31845916; PMCID: PMC7573971. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30557052/ 
  6. Perry H, Fang AJ, Tsai EM, Slanetz PJ. Imaging Health and Radiology Care of Transgender Patients: A Call to Build Evidence-Based Best Practices. J Am Coll Radiol. 2021 Mar;18(3 Pt B):475-480. doi: 10.1016/j.jacr.2020.10.008. PMID: 33663757. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33663757/
  7. American College of Radiology ACR Appropriateness Criteria®. Transgender breast cancer screening.
    ACR, Reston, Virginia2021
  8. Woods RW, Salkowski LR, Elezaby M, Burnside ES, Strigel RM, Fowler AM. Image-based screening for men at high risk for breast cancer: Benefits and drawbacks. Clin Imaging. 2020 Mar;60(1):84-89. doi: 10.1016/j.clinimag.2019.11.005. Epub 2019 Nov 28. PMID: 31864206; PMCID: PMC7242122. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31864206/ 
  9. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. (2022). BRCA-Pathogenic/Likely Pathogenic Variant – Positive Management (version 2.2022). Retrieved from https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/genetics_bop.pdf

What is screening?

Screening is looking for signs of disease before a person has symptoms. The goal of screening mammography is to find cancer at an early stage when it can be treated and cured.

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